Before buying any property or land in India, following legal documents or legalities should be checked.
1.Title deed / certificate of title of the land
When you are planning to buy any property, first and foremost thing is to check down the title deed of that property. The property title deed is the legal document which proves the ownership of property. The title deed presents certain rights and freedom to the person who holds it and such deeds are required where person wants to transfer his ownership.It includes description of property along with the person’s name that holds it and multiple persons can be listed as owner as well. An official seal is used to point out that the deed is recorded officially and normally it is signed by an owner(s) and a witness who may be a regional officer or a clerk.
So as a buyer you have to ask for original deed not a Xerox because sometimes the seller might have taken a loan and given in the original deed.
You should make sure through the title deed that the property is in the name of solely a seller and no one else is and he has all rights to sell it. The best practice is to get reviewed the property deed by an expert lawyer just to make sure that there are no loop holes.
As a good buyer you may also ask for a previous deed and get reviewed by a lawyer.
2. Encumbrance certificate
The encumbrance means any liabilities or charges created on any property in terms of any security of any debit by property owner which is not discharged as on date. It might be held as security against bank loan against property. Encumbrance certificate is necessary to check the title clearance of property when buying any property. This legal document is issued by registering authority. Government authorities and financial institutes like bank is requested encumbrance certificate for the period of 13 years but you can ask for up to 30 years as well to be checked. Then after if you still have any doubts, you can get possession certificate of ownership for a particular land from village office.
3. Torrence Plan
Torence plan is detailed plan of the property which is done by a licensed surveyor. All the measurements details in it are accurate in terms of length, width, borders etc. this plan is necessary for some specific areas only.
4. Pledged land
Many property owners take bank loan by pledging their property. So check they have paid the entire amount due when you are going to buy that property. If they have paid entire amount due then bank has issued them a “Release certificate”. Ask for the same as this release certificate is necessary whenever you want to take any loan in future.
5. Property Tax receipts
Property taxes are first charge on property that is paid to government or municipality. So you have to make enquiry in government and municipal offices to ensure whether all tax has been paid as on date. You can ask for latest tax receipt from owner. In this way you can check whether any notices or requisitions are issued on property or any tax due on the property. While you are checking property tax receipt, there are two columns in it. One is for owner’s name so verify it and other is for tax payer. In some cases, the tax receipt is not with owner. In such cases, you should contact village office with the survey number of land and confirm the original owner.
6. Measurement of Property
It is prudential to measure the land before registering any property. In this way you can ensure the measurements and borders of land are perfect and accurate. You should get done it with authorized surveyor as you will avoid many problems coming in future. For the sake of your knowledge you should take surveys sketch from survey department and do ensure the accuracy.
7. Owner or Owners
In some cases, it’s possible that there will be more than one owner of property. In that case get No Objection Certificate or Release certificate from other owners.
8. NRI owner
An NRI can also sell his property in India. For this he gives Power of Attorney to third person whom he give rights for selling the property on behalf of him. The most important thing is to ensure the Power of Attorney is witnessed and is duly signed by an officer of the Indian Embassy. The Power of Attorney signed by a notary public has no legal support I such a case.
9. Deed/ Sale Agreement
After sorting out all the things whether financial or any other between buyer and seller, it’s now turn for advance payment and agreement between them. The agreement is done on 5o Rs stamp paper. It includes the final actual amount, advance payment, time limit to pay due amount and how to pay in installments, time indication when the actual sale should take place. It also includes what to do to cover loss if one of buyer or seller makes default. This ensures that the seller does not defer cost in any case after finalization and he doesn’t sell to another party meanwhile. This agreement can be done by an expert lawyer and signed by both the parties with two witnesses. After doing this agreement, if one from both parties makes any default then another one should take legal action against him.
10. Property Registration
All property sales will be held illegal unless the transaction is by means of a sale deed duly stamped and registered. After collecting and checking all the documents, you have to register land/ property at the Sub-Registrar or the SDM (Sub District Magistrates) of your area.
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